Compose Key on X

Say Goodbye to the Swiss Keyboard Layout

I’ve been using the Swiss keyboard layout for most of my life. Things changed when I first had to work on a Mac Book. If the Swiss keyboard layout is not great for programming on a usual keyboard, because it requires combinations with Alt-Gr to type in braces and brackets, I consider the Mac version of it outright horrible, because braces and brackets are located on the digits row. Those symbols are not even painted onto their respective keys, which makes the transition for non-Mac users even harder.

Entering the US Keyboard Layout

So instead of learning an additional inefficient way of typing in special characters, I decided to adopt to the US keyboard layout. This layout gives you most characters required for programming with a single key or a combination of Shift and another key.

One issue of the US layout is that it doesn’t provide characters such as ö or é, which I still need to type in for emails, for documentation, and for this article, of course. Mac OS provides a composing mechanism that lets you type a double quote followed by a letter like o, and then combines those characters to the German umlaut ö. If you just want to type a double quotation mark, you need to type Space right after it, so that the quotation mark is not attempted to be combined with the next character entered. This is annoying, of course, when programming. So I never really got warm with the Mac keyboard layout and input method. An external keyboard with US layout didn’t help much in that respect, but at least allowed me to type in those cumbersome combinations faster and more precisely.

Switching Keyboard Layouts

Another solution to the goal conflict of typing in German umlauts and special programming characters as fast as possible is to switch the keyboard layout as needed. I’m very familier with this approach, because I use the Russian keyboard layout once in a while. I modified my dwm configuration so that pressing Super+Tab changes my keyboard layout using the following script (switchkb):


layout="$(setxkbmap -query | grep layout | egrep -o [a-z]{2}$)"
if [ "$layout" == "ch" ]; then
    setxkbmap ru
elif [ "$layout" = "ru" ]; then
    setxkbmap us 
elif [ "$layout" = "us" ]; then
    setxkbmap ch

This lets me cycle through the keyboard layouts I need very quickly. I also display the currently active keyboard layout in my status bar using slstatus, which I described in a previous article. Even though this is a feasible solution, I still have to switch mentally between the Swiss German and the US keyboard layout. Typing in a double quote in a German email requires me to press another key than typing in that very same character when programming. This additional mental burden is wearing me down on a usual working day, which consists of roughly 70% programming and 30% communicating. The communication part might actually be bigger, but some of the communication also takes part in English, so that I’d be better off using the US rather than the Swiss German keyboard layout.

Typing cyrillic letters still requires the Russian keyboard layout, so I won’t get rid of my switchkb script and Super+Tab. However, since typing in punctuation marks using the Russian keyboard layout is almost the same as typing in those characters on the US keyboard layout, I rather ditch my native Swiss German layout and embrace the imperialistic option.

Composing Characters

While being able to write source code faster and not having to distinguish between English, German, and Russian when typing in punctuation marks sounds great in terms of efficiency, not typing in the typographically correct representations of German umlauts (Ae, Oe, Ue instead of Ä, Ö, Ü) or misspelling French words with accent marks (depecherent instead of dépêchèrent) is bad in terms of communicating effectively. So there must be at least a way to type in those characters somewhat efficiently.

One option would be to type in those characters as hexadecimal Unicode code points. I’ve already learned a few thereof by heart, such as U+2012, U+2013, and U+2014 for dashes of different lenghts, or simple to remember ones like U+00ab and U+00bb for guillemets («»). In vim, those sequences can be entered by presing Ctrl+V U followed by the part after U+. In GTK applications, Ctrl+U enters a mode to enter those codes to be finished with a Space (or maybe some other character not representing a hexadecimal digit).

However, remembering a lot of Unicode code points is not a very intuitive way to type and probably leads to a lot of lookups on FileFormat.Info, which is at least a more sophisticated way than just googling those character code points, which usually ends up on FileFormat.Info anyway, or, worse, on a big Wikipedia page discussing the history and cultural significance of the LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA (ç) before giving me it’s code point U+00e7.

Entering the Compose Key

A better option is certainly the Compose Key. (Check out this Wikipedia Article for a discussion of its history and cultural significance). Even though not even the nerdiest of nerd keyboards come with a physical compose key nowadays, the X Window System still supports the underlying mechanism. And since X is running on both my Arch Linux and OpenBSD computers, using its compose key mechanism helps me both at work and for my private computing, the latter consisting mostly of writing articles about entering special characters on special computing setups and the like.

A good reference for this mechanism is the manual page Compose(5) or XCompose(5) on both Arch Linux and OpenBSD. (I guess it also applies to FreeBSD, but I didn’t check yet). However, there’s some additional information required to do a basic setup, so here’s a quick guide.

First, a compose key needs to be picked. There are various options, which can be looked up as follows:

# OpenBSD
$ grep 'compose:' /usr/X11R6/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst

# Arch Linux
$ grep 'compose:' /usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst

Which shows a list of keys that could be used for the compose key:

  compose:ralt         Right Alt
  compose:lwin         Left Win
  compose:lwin-altgr   3rd level of Left Win
  compose:rwin         Right Win
  compose:rwin-altgr   3rd level of Right Win
  compose:menu         Menu
  compose:menu-altgr   3rd level of Menu
  compose:lctrl        Left Ctrl
  compose:lctrl-altgr  3rd level of Left Ctrl
  compose:rctrl        Right Ctrl
  compose:rctrl-altgr  3rd level of Right Ctrl
  compose:caps         Caps Lock
  compose:caps-altgr   3rd level of Caps Lock
  compose:102          <Less/Greater>
  compose:102-altgr    3rd level of <Less/Greater>
  compose:paus         Pause
  compose:prsc         PrtSc
  compose:sclk         Scroll Lock

Caps Lock is a good choice, but would make it harder to type anonymous hate mail in all-caps to people not agreeing on my operating system preferences. Therefore I pick the Menu key, which I didn’t even use once in my dark Windows days. The compose key can be defined in ~/.xinitrc, ideally together with the choice of the aforementioned imperialistic keyboard layout:

setxkbmap us
setxkbmap -option compose:menu

On my Thinkpad (running Arch Linux), I prefer the PrtSc key, which is placed between AltGr and Ctrl on the right hand side of the Space bar. I don’t often take screenshots, since the content of my screen is mostly text, which is better captured using primary selection. (Did I already mention that I use Arch, btw.?)

setxkbmap us
setxkbmap -option compose:prtsc

After restarting X, the compose key is ready for action. Now I can type Menu " O to enter Ö on my PC (OpenBSD), or PrtSc ' e to enter é on my Laptop (Arch Linux). Not all together at the same time, but as a sequence, which is much more convenient. Pre-defined sequences can be looked up in the compose files under /usr/X11/share/X11/locale/[locale]/Compose on OpenBSD, or /us/share/X11/locale/[locale]/Compose on Arch Linux, respectively. As locale, I simply use en_US.UTF-8 (imperialism, remember?), which gives me a wide range of sequences (hand-picked examples):

<Multi_key> <C> <o> 			: "©"   copyright # COPYRIGHT SIGN
<Multi_key> <R> <o> 			: "®"   registered # REGISTERED SIGN
<Multi_key> <plus> <minus>     	: "±"   plusminus # PLUS-MINUS SIGN
<Multi_key> <s> <s>            	: "ß"   ssharp # LATIN SMALL LETTER SHARP S
<Multi_key> <E> <equal>        	: "€"   EuroSign # EURO SIGN
<Multi_key> <u> <slash> 		: "µ"   mu # MICRO SIGN
<Multi_key> <quotedbl> <A>     	: "Ä"   Adiaeresis # LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH DIAERESIS
<Multi_key> <acute> <E>        	: "É"   Eacute # LATIN CAPITAL LETTER E WITH ACUTE
<Multi_key> <asciitilde> <N>   	: "Ñ"   Ntilde # LATIN CAPITAL LETTER N WITH TILDE
<Multi_key> <comma> <c>        	: "ç"   ccedilla # LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA
<Multi_key> <v> <z> 			: "ž"   U017E # LATIN SMALL LETTER Z WITH CARON

Those sequences are very intuitive to type, so looking them up will hardly be needed. This configuration also allows me to type in scientific transliterations of Russian words, such as Č in Čechov (Menu < C) instead of the German Tschechow or the English Chekov. Same with š in Puškin and Ž in Dr. Živago.

If those sequences do not suffice for one’s particular needs, more sequences can be defined in the file ~/.XCompose. When doing so, it is important to also include the original definitions mentioned above as follows, so that it’s not needed to re-define them all:

include "%S/en_US.UTF-8/Compose"

The %S resolves to the path /usr/X11R6/share/X11/locale on OpenBSD and /usr/share/X11/locale on Arch Linux. (%L would resolve to the current locale and, thus, would be shorter, but I prefer the more explicit way using %S.) Additional rules can be defined as follows:

<Multi_key> <colon> <minus> <parenright> : "☺" U263A # WHITE SMILING FACE

This allows to type the smiley using Menu : - ) on my OpenBSD machine, and PrtSc : - ) on my Arch Linux laptop. The left hand side of the colon defines the key sequence. The right hand side defines a key symbol (keysym in X lingo), a string, or both, followed by an optional comment. It is also possible to enter whole strings in that manner:

<Multi_key> <m> <a> <c> : "fanboy"

Whose effect I leave for you to figure out.

Update (2020-09-17)

A former fellow student just made me aware of the keyboard variant altgr-intl for the US layout. It can be set as follows:

$ setxkbmap us -variant altgr-intl

This layout variant offers some useful shortcuts, all to be entered in combination with AltGr:

Unfortunately, an e with grave accent is not easily available, but the altgr-intl variant is still a good alternative for German.